JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT <p><strong>Journal of Social Sciences Development (JSSD).</strong></p> en-US JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT UNLOCKING THE SUSTAINABILITY: EVALUATING THE SUSTAINABILITY EDUCATION IN ENGLISH TEXTBOOK GRADE IX <p>The study analyzed the sustainability dimensions integrated in the textbook of English (Grade IX) for Punjab, Pakistan using sustainability framework proposed by Tavanti (2010). For this purpose, the English textbook for Grade IX was purposively sampled and analyzed through the qualitative content analysis processed on NVivo 12 software. The analysis results show that the English textbook for grade 9 also covers environmental, social, institutional, cultural sustainability &amp; value-based sustainability. Moreover, the values have been included like the moral stories for patriotism, national unity, and ethical conduct. The English textbook (grade 9) does not cover economic sustainability adequately. The study concludes that the textbook of English Grade 9 has boundaries to make indifferent students’ responsible citizens as claimed by liberal educational policy of Punjab Curriculum and Textbook Board. However, curriculum may be further improved by adding explicit mentions of the sustainable practices, green technologies, inclusive growth, poverty, hunger, responsible consumption, and production. Findings further suggest holistic approach to include education for sustainable development in the textbooks.</p> Muhammad Jamil Fatima Anwar Humayun Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-03 2024-05-03 3 2 1 13 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-01-01-13 THE INFLUENCE OF REWARD SYSTEM ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF INSTRUCTORS PHYSICAL EDUCATION <p>All organizations have reward schemes and awards to draw in and keep top performers. The main goal of rewards is to inspire workers and raise their level of engagement at work, which improves the workers' productivity as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine that how an organization's reward system affects worker performance. In this study, which used a quantitative methodology, 169 sets of questionnaires were given to the subjects who were chosen randomly. After that, the data were examined using SPSS software, and various analyses including correlation and regression analyses as well as the T-tests were performed. The findings demonstrate that every element significantly affects how well employees perform. This study will serve as a foundation for future investigations into the variables influencing teachers' effectiveness. The results provide important information in reaching desired conclusion &amp; making suitable decision. The employers will benefit from this study by having a better method for rewarding the achievements that will improve the performances. The organization can use the study's findings to enhance its rewards program and make sure it will help raise the employees’ performance.</p> Muhammad Safdar Luqman Afshan Jabeen Bilal Ahmad Qureshi Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 3 2 14 24 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-02-14-24 INVESTIGATING COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES IN ONLINE EDUCATION AT HIGHER EDUCATION IN PUNJAB <p>This study investigates the communication challenges faced by teachers in online education at higher education level in Punjab. It was a quantitative study with descriptive survey design. Data were collected through a survey from 75 conveniently selected teachers across colleges &amp; institutions using a self-developed five-point rating scale. The findings reveal that significant proportion of teachers experienced high levels of social isolation (32.3%), weak interaction with students (41.9%), lack of student motivation (47.3%), and difficulties in conceptual learning (57%) and assessment (63.4%). Also, the analysis showed differences based upon gender, location (urban/rural), and IT skills. The study underlines the difficulties faced in online teaching, emphasizing the need for directed interventions to increase teachers' digital pedagogy, develop meaningful student engagement and adopt assessment-related issues. It highlights importance of implementing a hybrid teaching-learning approach by associated online classes with traditional methods to moderate the identified challenges. It is recommended to focus on teachers’ digital pedagogy, technological proficiency, as well as strategies to develop students’ engagement.</p> Shafqat Ali Muhammad Aqeel Malhi Abdul Hameed Qamar Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 3 2 25 39 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-03-25-39 THE FEMINISM AND ACTIVISTS’ PLETHORA IN CONTEMPORARY ERA: AN ANALYSIS IN PAKISTAN’S CONTEXT <p>This study examined the impacts of feminism on challenging and combating anti-woman ideologies and practices in contemporary society. Objective of this study is to explore implications of the anti-feminist shift within modern feminist trends. The women were restricted to their domiciles throughout Western civilization; neither were they allowed to possess property, pursue education, or engage in public life in medieval Europe. Women were denied the ability to vote, to pursue higher education, and to enter the workforce. The development of this study involved a quantitative base and survey was constructed for population aged 15 and above. Sample of 384 respondents using Cochran formula was obtained, specifically graduate &amp; postgraduate students &amp; faculty members. To produce feminist attitude, measure Likert-type scale was designed. The results were contained with reliability of .784. This study indorses evaluating interdisciplinary ideology of anti-feminism. Recognize its shifting nature while in view of regional and national specifics and global trends. The threat that anti-feminist speech and practices pose to the women’s rights worldwide should be recognized by governments and authorities.</p> Unzur Kaifa Zahid Yaseen Muhammad Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 3 2 40 52 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-04-40-52 TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: A COMPARATIVE VIEW OF BELIEFS & PRACTICES OF TEACHERS <p>Technology advances must be incorporated into teaching process to create dynamic, interactive learning environments that will equip students for the challenges of digital age. Examining attitudes &amp; practices about technology developments in secondary education was the primary focus of the study. The study question "What is the impact of teachers' beliefs on their practices regarding the use of technological innovations at the secondary level?" was created to accomplish this goal. The data was gathered using an instrument based upon a five-point Likert scale. Through the use of stratified random sampling, 400 secondary school teachers were chosen as a sample. The SPSS software was used to examine gathered data. The data analysis revealed a substantial disparity in views of experienced and beginner teachers about usage of technological development. There was notable distinction between the approaches taken by inexperienced and experienced educators when implementing technology improvements. It was advised that the curriculum designers incorporate information upon the significance and application of technological developments at the secondary level based on the findings and conclusions.</p> Munib-Ul-Muneer Shafqat Ali Shaukat Ali Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-24 2024-05-24 3 2 53 65 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-05-53-65 WOMEN VIOLENCE DEPICTION IN DYSTOPIAN FICTION: AN ECOFEMINIST EXPLORATION OF THE PATRIARCHAL PATTERNS IN BINA SHAH’S BEFORE SHE SLEEPS <p>The current research explores Bina Shah's (2018) dystopian novel Before She Sleeps, which depicts violence against the women destroying nature's biodiversity. The worst effects on nature and women are examined using the ecofeminism framework by Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (2014). Males use science to fulfil their goals under pretext of strengthening society. Both women &amp; nature are cruelly disrupted by science, firming totalitarian state. Patriarchy, science, and technology all play interconnected role in shaping the world. Science, which is considered as a blessing, brutally disrupts both the normal cycles of women and of nature. Also, totalitarian regime benefits from it. The study reveals that development is a patriarchal project. Using the descriptive textual analysis method, the study's findings indicate that the scientific advancements, sexism, and innovation harm women and the environment. This study paves the way for studying the materialism from an ecofeminist perspective to provide new insights &amp; add significant research to the literature.</p> Ansa Naz Muhammad Sabboor Hussain Sitara Tariq Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 3 2 66 80 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-06-66-80 THE SINO-PAK STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP AND INDIA'S REGIONAL AIM IN SOUTH ASIA: AN ANALYSIS <p>In recent years amid 2013-2024, Sino-Pak relations witnessed a qualitative transformation as bilateral ties expanded in strategic perspective. Pakistan has been forced to pursue a strategic collaboration with China in order to preserve the balance of power in South Asia as a result of the dynamic post 9/11 global political changes and expanding strategic partnership between the US and India. Under the auspices of the Indo-US strategic partnership, India is making most of its resources and collaborating with US in a number of areas, including energy, defense and security, so as to fulfill its ambitions of becoming a dominating force in the region and building blue water navy. India regional aspirations are too great for Pakistan to overcome on its own. In order to oppose India's imperial aspirations in South Asian area, the Sino-Pak formed a strategic alliance. This study will pose some queries about most recent iterations of this partnership. In this research, strategic partnership amid two countries is described using a Rational Actor Model. The research goes on to say that Sino-Pak will not be deterred from pursuing the project despite India's assertion that corridor route goes through disputed Northern Pakistani territory.</p> Muhammad Nouman Ashraf Khan Syed Mussawar Hussain Bukhari Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 3 2 81 92 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-07-81-92 THE USE OF META-COGNITIVE SELF-ASSESSMENT STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS AMONG STUDENTS <p>The role of meta-cognition is significant in teaching and learning process, such as the reading, writing development, problem solving, social cognition, self-control, attention, communication &amp; in the development of personality. Thus, merely awareness about the learning procedure would not assurance of good instruction, on other hand, lacking it, teaching is just a trial and error as well as monotonous practice and most of the teachers can be destructive to their learners. This research conducted to explore the metacognitive self-assessment strategy effect on Writing Skills of 7th grade students in context of Pakistan in public school of Punjab. The experimental design was adopted in this study which involves two groups (experimental and control groups) pretest and posttest design. The sample consisted of 60 students of a public girls' high school. Writing Skills test was developed by researcher for data collection, mean, standard deviation and independent t-test were applied for data analysis. Results indicated that those students given the treatment attained higher scores compared to control. So, it is suggested that teachers should use metacognitive self-assessment strategy for teaching of writing skills in classroom.</p> Misbah Noor Aqsa Rizwan Munawar Rana Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 3 2 93 105 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-08-93-105 INVESTIGATING PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PRACTICES ABOUT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH <p>The classroom management in educational institutions comprises carrying out management strategies and goals while keeping students' progress in mind. Classroom management promotes interaction in both directions and reciprocal comprehension among students and teachers. This quantitative study examined the classroom management practices of the primary school teachers in Punjab, Pakistan, aiming to describe the importance of classroom management and to identify differences in practices based on gender and district. Thus, a sample of 300 teachers from Lahore and Multan districts was surveyed using a questionnaire. Data analysis involved t-tests and ANOVA. The findings revealed significant differences in practices between male and female teachers, with female teachers indicating more effective strategies. Additionally, teachers in Lahore exhibited better practices compared to those in Multan. No significant differences were found based on the teacher qualifications. The study concludes that effective classroom management is crucial for enhancing student learning &amp; recommends professional growth for teachers, along with policy considerations for class size and technology integration.</p> Ambreen Siddique Muhammad Moin Tanzeela Urooj Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 3 2 106 116 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-09-106-116 THE ETHICAL LEADERSHIP & SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE: ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE <p>The ethical leadership is responsible for confirming the ethical standards overwhelmed at desired norms and shared values, that results in workforces’ effective attitudes and behaviors, culminates at sustainable performance. In order to examine role of organizational culture in linking ethical leadership and sustainable performance, the data was collected from teachers (sample from population) hailing from higher education institutions in the southern region, KP, Pakistan, to investigate hypothesized relationship (association &amp; mediation), among variables, to extract desired information in reaching the conclusion and making suitable decisions. The results of study confirmed the existence of association and partial mediation through the correlation and mediation procedures wherein findings can be used as guiding principles in managing research issues more artistically in attaining desired outcomes. Thus, it is suggested from results that ethical leadership can play significant role in higher institutions by ensuring ethical values and standards that are essential parameters for the behavioral transformation overwhelmed at the sustainable performance and culminates at sustainable development and anticipated success.</p> Irfan Ullah Khan Muhammad Siddique Asad Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-07 2024-06-07 3 2 117 127 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-10-117-127 THE USE OF SMARTPHONES IN SHAPING OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL <p>Students use smartphones through access of different electronic media from anywhere at any time. Most of mobile phones can now efficiently cultivate popular activities such as playing computer games, accessing the Internet, supporting students' performance, destroying students' health &amp; enhancing their academic performance. This study examines the teacher's perception of the role of smartphones in shaping students' academic performance at the secondary level. For this drive, data was collected by using a self-developed survey questionnaire. So, 160 secondary school teachers, including 70 male and 90 female teachers, were selected using simple random sampling. Data about frequencies, percentages, means, and SD were analyzed. The results show that teachers confirmed that smartphones support students in gaining new skills, like critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The studies also illustrate that smartphones are destroying students' health and increasing depression. Study advised that teachers and parents may check and balance the usage of mobile by students for their well-being. Teachers and parents motivate them to use smartphones positively, enhancing their learning and education quality.</p> Nazir Ahmad Rozina Sewani Zahid Ali Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-07 2024-06-07 3 2 128 141 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-11-128-141 PIXELS TO PROSE: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON IMPACT OF PICTURE MEDIA ON STUDENTS’ WRITING POTENTIAL <p>The purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness and impact of pictures media upon elementary grade students writing competencies. The study employed a quantitative research method of the quasi-experimental design. The subjects of the research were eighth grade students at a private sector elementary school. Total 30 students were formed experimental and control groups. Experimental as well control group consisted of 15 students respectively. The sampling technique used in this research is the purposive sampling. Pre-test and post tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of picture students’ writing achievement/scores. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the percentage as well as mean score and standard deviations. The results of study offered significant information that further helps in reaching the desired conclusion and making the suitable decisions. The result suggests that pictures technique as writing instruction enhances the writing skill of students. However, the results further suggest that series of intervention is needed to achieve the objective of improving the students’ writing skills.</p> Tajuddin Sharar Sadia Faisal Saima Firdous Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 3 2 142 153 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-12-142-153 GEOGRAPHIC DIVERSITY AND LANDSCAPE IN TRANSITION: ANALYZING THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF GILGIT BALTISTAN REGION <p>This study presents multidimensional analysis of the Gilgit Baltistan region, focusing upon its geographical, environmental, and socio-economic aspects. Employing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the research defines the region's physical features, climatic conditions, and hydrological characteristics. It quantitatively assesses distribution of glaciers, rivers, and forests, utilizing statistical data to realize trends in hydrology and ecology. Qualitatively, study explores hazards and vulnerabilities inherent in region, including natural, man-made hazards, their intensity, and socio-economic implications. Also, it conducts a comparative analysis to examine strategic significance of mountain passes in facilitating the trade, travel and cultural exchange. Study reveals region's significant hydrological resources, with glaciers and snowmelt serving as principal water sources. Strategic status of mountain passes in facilitating trade and connectivity, with key passes like Khunjerab and Babusar serving as vital links between Pakistan to China, as well as connecting the region with other provinces of Pakistan. The analysis further reveals that among natural hazards the region is vulnerable to flash floods, landslides, and snow avalanches, intensified by its rugged terrain and climatic conditions.</p> Muhammad Qasim Shujaat Ali Muhammad Aqeel Copyright (c) 2024 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 3 2 154 169 10.53664/JSSD/03-02-2024-13-154-169